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Evaluating the methods and influencing factors of satellite-derived estimates of NOX emissions at regional scale: A case study for Yangtze River Delta, China

The top-down estimation of NOX emissions and their influencing factors were evaluated based on the “synthetic” and real satellite observation methods at different spatial scales in eastern China. Using the “synthetic” NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) simulated from a hypothetical “true” emission inventory, the top-down estimates of NOX emissions for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region at 9 km resolution and the Southern Jiangsu City Cluster (SJC) at 3 km resolution were obtained using various inverse modeling approaches and the a priori emissions for January and July 2012. The normalized mean biases (NMBs) between the top-down and the hypothetical “true” emissions for all the cases were smaller than 6%, which indicates that both linear and nonlinear approaches could effectively constrain the total amount of emissions, with limited influence from spatial resolution, a priori emissions, and seasons. Larger differences for most cases were found for the normalized mean errors (NMEs), implying that the inverse modeling approach and other influencing factors played a more
important role on the spatial distribution of the top-down estimates. Two NO2 VCD products from real satellite observation (Dutch OMI NO2 data product v2 (DOMINO v2) and Peking University OMI NO2 data product v2 (POMINO v2)) were then applied to emissions constraints. The NMEs between the top-down estimates derived from the two products were calculated at 182% and 99% for January and July, respectively, indicating the great importance of satellite observation in constraining emissions. With the nonlinear inverse modeling approach, the top-down estimates of NOX emissions based on POMINO v2 were 25%–60% smaller than the national bottom-up inventory for the four seasons in the YRD, which indicates overestimation by the bottom-up method due to the insufficient consideration of recent air pollution control policy. At the 9 km resolution, the simulated NO2 concentrations with air quality modeling based on the top-down estimates were much closer to available ground observation than the bottom-up ones for all seasons, which suggests improved emissions estimation from the inverse model at regional scales.


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Copyright 南京大学赵瑜教授研究组